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Ligament Tears

There are four main ligaments in the knee: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), lateral collateral ligament (LCL). Any one of these ligaments may be partially or completely torn due to trauma (pivot, forceful hit to the knee). Physiotherapy is effective in reducing pain and improving strength in […]

Meniscal Tears

The meniscus is a cartilaginous structure providing cushioning between your femur and tibia. Tears in the meniscus (either lateral or medial) may result from trauma such as twisting of the knee, or from degeneration. Individuals with meniscal tears often have difficulties with weight bearing activities (e.g. running, walking), going up the stairs, and may […]

Piriformis Syndrome

Piriformis Syndrome occurs when the sciatic nerve is irritated by the overlying, tight piriformis muscle. Individuals experience pain in the hip (buttock) area but may also complain of pain in their low back or leg. Physiotherapy is effective by administering therapeutic modalities to relieve pain, applying manual therapy (soft tissue or neural tissue mobilization), […]

Hip Replacement

A procedure that replaces the hip joint with a prosthetic implant to improve function following injury, arthritis or any other cause that may result in dysfunction in the hip joint. Individuals following a hip replacement will have activity restrictions provided by their surgeon. Physiotherapy can help address these issues with exercise, stretches, hands-on techniques […]

Trochanteric Bursitis

Trochanteric bursitis is the inflammation of the bursa located between the greater trochanter (structure on the femur) and the iliotibial band (fibrous band along the side of your leg). Individuals experience pain on their lateral thigh that can radiate down to the knee. Trochanteric bursitis may result from overuse or a fall. This condition […]


Spondilolisthesis is a condition where the upper lumbar vertebra is displaced anteriorly (forward) on the vertebrae one level below. There are 3 grades of anterior slippage of the vertebral body: Grade 1 (low level), Grade 2 (moderate level) and Grade 3 (severe level). It is usually common in persons who are exposed to repetitive […]


Sciatica is an irritation of the sciatic nerve. It can result from multiple causes such as: a sudden stretch of the nerve (e.g. fall), excessive pressure on the nerve (e.g. prolonged sitting-truck drivers, pilots), low back injury and tightness of the piriformis muscle. Physiotherapy can be effective by addressing these factors through manual therapy […]


Costochondritis is the inflammation of the costochondral joints (joints between the rib bone and cartilage). Physiotherapy intervention is effective in relieving pain through the use of therapeutic modalities such as laser, gentle stretching exercises to the tight rib cage and pectoral muscles, breathing exercises, taping to unload painful tissues and education.

Disc Dergangement/Herniation

Disc dergangement/herniation is the result of displacement of the intervertebral disc. This is common in individuals 30-40 years old and may result from an unknown cause or traumatic injury. Individuals experience pain at the site of the derangement and may experience pain, numbness or tingling in their arms (cervical) or legs (lumbar). Individuals experience […]


Stenosis is the narrowing of the spinal canal resulting in increased pressure on the spinal cord itself or the spinal nerves. There is no specific cause of stenosis but it tends to worsen over time. Individuals experience pain at the site of stenosis but may experience pain, numbness or tingling in their arms (cervical […]