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Impingement is the reduction of the subacromial space resulting in compression of the rotator cuff tendons often due to poor posture. It usually results in restriction and decreased quality of movement with elevation of the shoulder joint. Individuals may experience difficulty with overhead, repetitive and throwing activities. Physiotherapy can help by addressing posture, pain, […]

Frozen Shoulder

The cause of Frozen shoulder is unknown but results from the thickening of the shoulder capsule. Frozen shoulder is common in individuals 40-60 years of age, predominantly women. This condition may appear following trauma, surgery or may present with no precipitating factor. Frozen shoulder goes through 3 stages: freezing, frozen and thaw. The whole […]

TMJ Pain or Dysfunction

TMJ or Tempromandibular joint is the joint connecting the upper palate with the lower jaw. TMJ is often the result of excessive yawning or maximal mouth opening, poor/slouching posture, prolonged gum chewing or nail biting and teeth grinding during sleep. Individuals with TMJ disorders can experience clicking, popping or locking at the joint, […]


Whiplash is a common result of motor vehicle accidents. Individuals with whiplash are classified into one of four categories: WAD O-no pain or physical signs, WAD 1-individual complains of pain but there are no physical signs, WAD 2-individual complains of pain and there are physical signs such as loss of range, WAD 3-the above […]

BPPV (benign paroxysmal positional vertigo)

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo causes dizziness or vertigo, light-headedness, imbalance and nausea because of particles which collect within a part of the inner ear. No cause is ever found in about half of the people with BPPV, however the other half suffers from this disorder due to head injury, infection or degeneration of the […]


A fracture is a break in the bone. Following appropriate medical intervention (e.g. surgery, cast) physiotherapy can assist in improving strength in the muscles surrounding the fracture, improving range of motion of the affected area and reducing pain through therapeutic modalities such as ultrasound and interferential current.

Nerve Injuries

Irritation to the nerve may occur alone or in conjunction with other injuries such as low back or neck pain. Individuals may experience numbness, pins and needles or a burning sensation. Physiotherapy can assist with improving the movement of nerves within the tissue through hands on techniques and exercises.


Lymphadema is the swelling of limbs due to lymph fluid build up in lymph nodes. This condition is particularly common with breast cancer when lymph nodes may be damaged or removed following surgery or radiation. Physiotherapy is effective in providing appropriate exercises to help promote lymphatic drainage as well as provide education on compression […]


Urinary Incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine. Incontinence can occur at any age; however it is common during or post pregnancy and in the geriatric population. There are various types of urinary incontinence including: stress incontinence, urge incontinence, overflow incontinence and mixed incontinence. Physiotherapy typically involves deep pelvic floor muscular control retraining exercises, […]


Osteoporosis is a disease resulting in the loss of bone mass. This condition is more common in women and increases the risk of fractures especially in the hip, spine and wrist. Treatment for osteoporosis consists of: weight bearing activities such as running, and brisk walking to help maintain bone mass, education on proper body […]